PhD career capital

My sister is fond of reminding me that, in 1992, after returning from my first overseas trip to Europe, I told her I wanted a career where I could “get on and off planes and talk to people for a living”. It’s appropriate then, that I write this post while flying high above the red centre of Australia on my way back to chilly Canberra from tropical Darwin.

In the getting-on-and-off-planes-and-talking-to-people business, expectation management is crucial. Sometimes people ask me to do a one hour talk on:

  • How you got so ‘big’ on social media
  • What PhD students should do to be successful
  • What you’re researching right now

Of course, any one of those topics is a talk on its own – maybe even a course. In the past, I’ve tried to cover all three and just left everyone feeling confused. Now I spend time talking to my prospective hosts about exactly who is in the audience, what stage of the PhD process they are at and what I can offer them from my repertoire.

Delightfully, the Darwin hosts gave me an open invitation to come up to the tropics for a few days and talk on whatever topic took my fancy. However, they were immediately wary of the topic I suggested: academic employment prospects for PhD graduates.

“It won’t be too depressing, will it?”, they asked anxiously.
After a long pause I replied: “I’ll try to be upbeat.”

Look. There’s no getting around it. Talking about career prospects in academia, especially in Australia, can be depressing. I did my best to do an upbeat, yet informative and pragmatic talk about building an academic career. At the end I invited PhD students to come and talk to me, one on one, about their own career plans. I get most of my good ideas for blog posts from these conversations with PhD students, which are the very best part of any speaking gig. But in this case I had an ulterior motive.

Last year, with my excellent research collaborators Will Grant and Hanna Suominen, I helped design and develop a machine learning natural language processing algorithm (ML-NLP) that can ‘read’ job advertisements. I’ll call what we made ‘The Machine’ for simplicity’s sake (and because it’s kind of cool). The Machine can sort job advertisements along a spectrum of research skill intensity and display the results. The purpose of The Machine was to report to the government the demand for research skills amongst Australian employers.

Most employers are not familiar with the skills of PhD graduates as, until relatively recently, there’s been so few of them. As a consequence, most employers who are clearly looking for PhD level research skills do not list PhD as a qualification. The machine can see where an employer wanted a PhD graduate, but didn’t know it and can sort a huge data set much more effectively than a human and show us where the ‘hidden’ jobs for PhD students are outside academia.

We found lots of interesting things with our Machine, which I can’t tell you yet because we are still finalising our initial report and papers. However, the project has already moved on to a new and even more exciting stage. We’ve been given the opportunity to build a product, with the ultimate aim of (hopefully) providing a free, or at least very low cost, advice to PhD graduates who are seeking to work outside of academia – some 60% of you and rising.

As part of the ‘customer validation process’ I aim to talk to at least 100 PhD students and recent PhD graduates about what they are doing to further their career goals. In Darwin I took the opportunity to continue the talks I started with PhD students at ANU. These interviews are fascinating and are turning upside down some of my preconceptions about the way PhD students go about career building.

I expected PhD students to be confused, but some are confused about which of the amazing options available is the best one to take. Other people I’ve spoken to feel their options are very limited. Age, disciplinary specialty and caring responsibilities can restrict career options, but this seems to happen less than I thought. I expected PhD students to be anxious and worried about the uncertainty surrounding this next stage of their career. Many, perhaps the majority, of people I have spoken to so far are very worried, but  there are a small proportion who are not. While some of them freely admitted to being in denial, there are PhD students out there who don’t have the foggiest idea of what to do next, but are genuinely relaxed, even excited, by the uncertainty of it all.

Relaxed and excited by financial uncertainty? How can this be?

As a life-long Worrier, I find this lack of stressing about the future admirable. Worry About What Is Next consumed most of my PhD time and was part of the reason I rushed through it. While I’m happy to dwell in uncertainty in my research, I don’t like uncertainty about income. I grew up in a household with constant money troubles, which was, frankly, traumatising. The PhD was a time of tight rations in the Mewburn household and brought some of these unpleasant feelings back. Sometimes the uncertainty of What Comes Next made it hard to concentrate, so I went into a kind of denial. There were many days I felt like I was walking on a tightrope, just concentrating on getting the PhD done, too scared to look down or think too much about the future.

I’m starting to wonder: what separates those students who are consumed with anxiety from those who aren’t? I think the answer lies in what the unworried do.

To help me unpack this, on the long plane flights to and from Darwin, I re-read part of one of my favourite books on career building: So Good They Can’t Ignore You, by Cal Newport. If you are wondering about how to build a post PhD career and haven’t yet read this book, you really should.

Newport’s book is aimed at unsettling what he calls the myth of passion based career advice. Don’t follow your dream  he says: passion follows skill, not the other way around. Newport’s basic point is that happiness in a job is a combination of freedom, mastery and connection. If you are great at what you do (mastery), you are likely to have more autonomy (freedom) and the last is obvious (it only takes one bully to ruin your working life).

The best part of the book is where Newport discusses the concept of career capital. Most great jobs, he argues, require skills that are both rare and valuable. If you have rare and valuable skills, you will have a good stock of career capital and always be in hot demand.

This started me thinking about my own career capital. My biggest ‘asset’ is this blog actually – it demonstrates my expertise to a large network of people on a regular basis. Being known as a good communicator is a clear asset in academia, but I need to be more than just a blogger. Many people can write well, but I can write fast. I honed this skill over a period of more than ten years, basically just by reading books, teaching writing to PhD and writing a lot – on the blog and elsewhere. I also have some solid skills in analysis. Many people can analyse and interpret qualitative data, but most seem to do it without using software tools. By knuckling down and learning these tools – the latest of which is machine learning – I can tackle complex projects in short time frames. Being fast is vital because, as Newport points out, there is always a ‘cloud of other expectations’ in academia, just waiting to rain on your research parade.

To develop skills that are rare and valuable, Newport argues, you must be prepared to take a ‘craftsmanlike approach’ to your work. This involves spending time to get really good at your craft by stretching yourself, just a little bit, all the time. The aim of all this practice is to get so good they can’t ignore you. Newport gives many interesting examples of craftsperson-like approaches to work (I hate that making this term non-gendered makes it awkward, but the patriarchy oppresses us all). The examples he gives are mostly male, but they are varied: from banjo playing to making computers, so I’ll give him props for range.

What I am beginning to see in all the people who are genuinely excited about the uncertainty of their PhD future is a commitment to their academic craft – whatever that might be. They talk about writing papers to learn the tricks of academic publishing. They seek out opportunities to teach. They go to conferences and watch other people speak, so they can learn how to be good at presenting. They talk about just loving a technique, or approach to research – after working hard for years and years to master it. The attitude is ‘work the skills, the rest will follow’.

I wish I could go back and tell PhD Inger this. I did work skills and indeed, the rest did follow. If I didn’t end up in academia, I’m sure those rare and valuable skills would have found a home somewhere else.

This is clearly a kind of mindful practice involved in this craftsperson’s attitude – a willingness to be in the moment and stay with the struggle of learning a rare and difficult skill. Worry can make concentrating difficult, so maybe this is a way through for those of you who, like myself, fret about the What’s Next. Ask yourself: What rare and valuable skills can I develop? Look around you: what is the work that most people avoid? People avoid hard things. Get good at the hard things – you’re very clever, so this will be easier for you than for many people.

I’m looking forward to sharing more about our ongoing research and development soon. I’d love to speak to you if you are willing to share with me your own approach to your post-academic career. You can send me an email at I’d love to talk to people of all stages – including people who have graduated and are looking for work, but I’ll leave you with a few questions to see if we can have a conversation here too:

What is your career capital? The valuable and rare skills you have developed up to and including your PhD. How do they make you so good they can’t ignore you? Are you

Is your career capital transferable to another kind of job outside of academia? If so, have you worked out what that job might be?

Related links

Deliberate practice

Academic on the inside?


20 thoughts on “PhD career capital

  1. OK, but what if the skill that is valuable in the sense of “marketable” is something you hate doing and don’t have any exceptional talent for? In my own case, I am employable because of my quantitative skills, but I despise quantitative work. I am much better at being a theoretician, and not coincidentally that’s what I love to do. But there’s no market for that outside of academia.

  2. This was an interesting read for someone who is considering whether or not to embark on a PhD – I know I don’t want a career in academia, but I do want a career in research-related work, and I worry that at some point in the future I will end up being underqualified, always overlooked in favor of (or working as an assistant to) someone who has a PhD. If so, it would be best to get the PhD done now. So this line was particularly interesting:
    “Most employers who are clearly looking for PhD level research skills do not list PhD as a qualification.”
    This does match what I’ve found from informally scanning job ads for roles I’d like to do in future. It’s a shame The Machine can’t tell us if these employers who “wanted a PhD graduate, but didn’t know it” did indeed end up hiring a PhD graduate.

    I have found Cal Newport’s books useful but annoyingly gendered – I didn’t notice as much in So Good They Can’t Ignore You (but you point out “The examples he gives are mostly male”) but I almost couldn’t finish Deep Work because it just seemed to reinforce the idea of academia being mainly for men.

    • While doing this research we did talk a lot about that exact question Lurker: do they hire PhD graduates? It’s hard to know and the majority of the ads clearly put a premium on experience. Getting a PhD in an area where you already have experience can clearly be a good strategy, but it’s very dependant on discipline. My PhD was the nail in the coffin for my employability as an architect. Agree on the annoyingly gendered thing about Cal Newport’s work in general. I love his ideas, but I do wonder how much they hold given the diversity that is (thankfully) more common these days. Stay tuned! Our research is definitely expanding to include employer perceptions and attitude to hiring PhD graduates.

      • Thanks for the reply! Will keep an eye on your research – so useful to have good evidence to support decision making – a lot of material out there is based on personal opinion or on very outdated knowledge of the state of the job market (or if they know about academia they’re clueless about other options, or vice versa). As for the emphasis on experience – I feel like most job ads sound like: we want someone who is currently doing this exact job and has been doing it for 10 years’ so it can be hard to judge what they’ll actually settle for!

  3. Thank you so much for this! I was lucky enough to attend the university that started the White Paper and the TRaCE project in Canada, so my expectations for my PhD are broad. I’m focused on details that my peers sometimes find baffling, but I’m also not worried. As I balance my PhD life as a single mom, I know all the skills I’m learning–from time management and organization to efficient writing and the craftsmanship of scholarship–will be valuable assets in academia and in alt-ac jobs. It also helps me consider the wider implications of research in general and how to design my PhD for me–not just jump through the hoops and cross my fingers. I look forward to reading the guide posted above as well as the final research results! You rock!

  4. Ugh, sorry but the “be so good they can’t ignore you” line leaves my teeth on edge. The fact is, if you are a certain type of person, you can be the best in the world and still not be recognised. I am happy for those special people who feel confident that the world is so open to their brilliance that it is just a matter of being brilliant. Actually, I lied. No I’m not happy for them!

    • There’s most definitely racist issues in hiring, and many classed and gendered factors too. Some people do start closer to the finish line. I’d love to see Newport be more sensitive to these issues in his writing, but I fear that’s not his bag… I guess I have to keep doing this research and write something myself!

  5. I finished a PhD a couple of years ago after a career spanning consulting, clinical work and executive management roles.

    I realised that I actually dislike research, and can’t stand the cynical self interest and deskwork associated with consulting or management.

    So, back to clinical work and running my own business.

    Lesson learned? Ya gotta have a craft based trade to sell. Independent of large organisations.

    No matter if it’s stats, carpentry or clinical work.

    • I totally agree with this – but as you say, ‘no matter if it’s stats, carpentry or clinical work’. I approach research, writing, editing, interviewing, focus group facilitation and all the other work I do as a craft…but that’
      s what makes me wonder about a PhD – is this the best way to continue to develop my skills toward being a better craftsman in this trade?

      • IMHO, no. It’s a good bucket list thing.

        Looks ok on a business card and gives you a bit of a tingle for a while to be referred to as Dr.

        And it makes you think a bit more clearly.

        But it’s really just a long essay.

        Will polishing your essay writing skills make you a better craftsperson in the real world? Not so sure.

      • The criteria for a PhD is making an “original and significant contribution to knowledge”. The thesis documents that knowledge and provides sufficient information to allow others to replicate the results of your research.

        As a consultant that knowledge becomes “rare” by virtue of the fact that you came up with it and gained recognition for it from others who too are at the leading edge of expanding that area of knowledge.

        So the real question then becomes whether your contribution is in an area that makes it “valuable” to some specific “market”.

  6. I think my “valuable and rare skills” are being able to read French as well as old German handwriting. I’m not sure how transferable or marketable those skills are outside my academic field, though.. 🙂

    • – but hanks for the post. I’m definitely a worrier, and I also don’t like uncertainty about income (who does?). I grew up in a non-academic household with money troubles, and so the prospect of not knowing what exact job a PhD qualifies me for can feel scary. I spent most of my PhD time worrying about what’s next. After finally discovering that French and old German hand are indeed rare skills, I am now trying not to worry so much and just write the thesis, 1000 words a day…

  7. Having helped a fair number of people putting together their CVs and resumes, one of the things that I can’t stress enough though is that most people overlook skills that come easily to them – as if things like time management, clear and concise writing, ability to work as a team, juggling multiple deadlines, ability to read and synthesize complex information are not skills. These are skills that almost everyone getting a PhD develops (or sometimes started with) – but don’t think to put on their CV or resume. But, these are the skills that make you stand out.

    They are also the skills that can make you marketable outside of the specific field you studied in. For example – good science writer with an understanding of psychology – look into copy writing or health writing. Great at time management, accountability, and group work – that’s project management. Good at physics? Look into Game design. I took my background in public health and psychology and went into academic coaching (side gig, I still do research). If I wanted to, I could use that coaching experience to boost my resume with teaching skills if I wanted to leave research and start teaching at a community college or other non-research institution. It’s important not to take your abilities for granted and overlook things that will put you at the head of the pack.

  8. Interesting view. I never thought of career capital in my PhD, as signing up for it was an opportunity that I took as it was, just like all the other opportunities before (scholarships and fellowships during my Bachelor’s and Master’s). I should have thought better before starting on a three year journey through the unknown, but I did learn a lot from it (and I’m almost finished, yay).

    First, I now know I don’t want to stay in academia (no post-docs or teaching for me, thank you very much). Also, I really don’t like fundamental research and theoretical approaches. Everything else was somehow brought into focus during my PhD:
    – I like experiments and I like to have ‘data’ that I can analyse in my head, not using a computer. That is, I have high visual analytical skills and I should use them, not hide them, like I’ve been doing during my PhD.
    – I am a hands-on person and love solving problems in a non-linear fashion (meaning that I have no idea what I’m doing, but I come up with unexpected solutions to problems that you didn’t even know you had).
    – I am really curious and love learning about anything, so I have a vast knowledge base from many fields. I take aspects from this and mix it up and come up with ideas and solutions to problems, but these have been somewhat toned down during my PhD because of the research environment.
    – I am slow and reluctant to change, but meticulous and very patient when doing something that does not require sitting in front of the computer all day (unless I’m reading or writing about something very interesting, in which case I could spend hours in front of the computer).

    Where can all of these skills be put to use?

    When I was a kid I used to brag that I could become anything I wanted, as I was open to any field of study. Maybe I could have, but I didn’t know what I wanted. I think now I know just a little better. Making things with my own hands and developing techniques, writing (fiction as non-fiction), teaching hands-on approaches to life problems, fixing things and helping people discover their own qualities, that’s what I want to do. I know no company can offer that as a job, unless I make my own. I have already started on an entrepreneurial path and will keep on it.

    I think that being an entrepreneur goes hand-in-hand with being a highly skilled person such as a PhD graduate, especially since nobody else can ever claim to have the same skills as yours. Being so good they can’t ignore you also means that you are so good that no company should keep you for themselves, unless it’s your own company. Does that make sense? I hope so.

    Please let us know when you publish the report about The Machine, I’m really curious about it now.

  9. Pingback: Arbitrage for Rare and Valuable PhD Skills | Ben Kraal

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